Make India Asbestos Free

Make India Asbestos Free
For Asbestos Free India

Journal of Ban Asbestos Network of India (BANI). Asbestos Free India campaign of BANI is inspired by trade union movement and right to health campaign. BANI has been working since 2000. It works with peoples movements, doctors, researchers and activists besides trade unions, human rights, environmental, consumer and public health groups. BANI demands criminal liability for companies and medico-legal remedy for victims.

Friday, December 31, 2010

Support of SUCI, CPIML, SJP & SF for Asbestos Ban Welcomed

Press Release Support of SUCI, CPIML, SJP & SF for Asbestos Ban Welcomed

Villagers Threaten Self-Immolation Against Killer Balmukund Factory

BANI Congratulates Turkey Govt for Banning Asbestos Completely

31/12/2010 NEW DELHI/PATNA: Ban Asbestos Network of India (BANI) welcomes the support of Socialist Unity Centre of India (SUCI), Communist Party of India Marxist Leninist (CPIML), Samajwadi Jan Parishad and Socialist Front to the villagers of Chainpur-Bishunpur, Muzaffarpur who have waged a bitter struggle against a hazardous asbestos factory. Prior to this National Alliance for People’s Movement (NAPM) has also extended its support and written to Bihar government.

Amidst heavy police presence, disappointed with state government’s response, the villagers have threatened to undertake self-immolation against the construction of the toxic asbestos factory in their village. They are shocked at the manifest collusion between the district administration and the factory owners.

BANI met Shri Vasishtha Naraian Singh, the state President of Janata Dal (United), in person gave a written petition on 29th December seeking his support for the movement against asbestos plant in Muzaffarpur in particular and in the state in general. He has promised to respond after 2nd January, 2011. A petition has been sent to the heads of national political parties as well.

Meanwhile even before the disclosure of the factory owner’s meeting with the Mr Sushil Kumar Modi, Deputy Chief Minister, a letter has been sent to him by BANI drawing his attention towards the massive opposition to the life threatening factory, the letter of world’s foremost asbestos expert, Dr Barry Castleman and the letter of Dr Sanjay Chaturvedi, Professor and Head, Dept of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Delhi, Delhi.

Dr Chaturvedi’s letter states, “It is disturbing to note that new factories to produce asbestos containing products are being established in Bihar. Asbestos is a highly hazardous material to human health and both – occupational as well as non occupational exposures to any form of asbestos are associated with mesothelioma and other malignancies among humans. WHO, IARC, US EPA and several leading biomedical journals have identified asbestos as a potent carcinogenic material which needs to be replaced by safer substitutes. This is what the regulatory bodies and experts have been saying for a long time”.

Contradicting the misplaced claims of the owners of Balmukund asbestos company, Dr Tarun Mandal, Member of Parliament, SUCI has written to Mr Jairam Ramesh, Union Minister of Environment & Forests seeking his intervention to stop the hazardous asbestos factory in Muzaffarpur. He has alleged that the factory owner has “misled” and has been “feeding false information” to the Union Environment Ministry. Dr Mandal has expressed dismay at the fact that the “making of Asbestos Factory on fertile agricultural land by Bal Mukund Company” constitutes “plundering fertile farm land adding threat to food security”. He has noted that “The land, surrounded by thickly populated villages having number of schools, was purchased by the company” saying “an agriculture related plant will be raised there”. Dr Mandal has sought an inquiry by the Environment Ministry.

Reputed institutions such as Dept of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Delhi, Centre for Science and Environment, Science for Society, Breakthrough Society, ToxicsWatch Alliance have raised objections against the proposed asbestos plant based on rigorous scientific and medical findings. Dr Gopalji Trivedi, Ex Vice Chancellor of Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, Bihar disapproved of acquisition of agricultural land for industrial operations such as asbestos factories.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer, a UN agency says, “Asbestos, is a potent human carcinogen; and amount of asbestos already released in the environment creates a situation where exposure to chrysotile products remains the leading cause of mesothelioma in the world.” It has been pointed out that “Since new asbestos use is banned in developed world, the global asbestos corporate is trying to create new markets in the countries with weak legislation.”

BANI has drawn the attention towards the directions and observations of the Supreme Court of India in the Consumer Education and Research Centre and Others versus Union of India decided on 27.1.1995 and reported in 1995 (3) SCC 42 saying, “The development of the carcinogenic risk due to asbestos or any other carcinogenic agent, does not require continuous exposure. The cancer risk does not cease when the exposure to the carcinogenic agent ceases, but rather the individual carries the increased risk for the remaining years of life. The exposure to asbestos and the resultant long tragic chain of adverse medical, legal and societal consequences, reminds the legal and social responsibility of the employer or producer not to endanger the workmen or the community or the society. He or it is not absolved of the inherent responsibility to the exposed workmen or the society at large. They have the responsibility-legal, moral and social to provide protective measures to the workmen and to the public or all those who are exposed to the harmful consequences of their products. Mere adoption of regulations for the enforcement has no real meaning and efficiency without professional, industrial and governmental resources and legal and moral determination to implement such regulations.”

In such grave circumstances, Bihar government cannot and should not become party to asbestos company’s blind lust for profit at any human cost.

At the meeting, the resolution of International Labour Organization (ILO) adopted by the 95th Session of the International Labour Conference, in June 2006, stateS, “all forms of asbestos, including chrysotile, are classified as known human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, a classification restated by the International Programme on Chemical Safety (a joint Programme of the International Labour Organization, the World Health Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme)”.

The resolution noted that “an estimated 100,000 workers die every year from diseases caused by exposure to asbestos and resolved that “the elimination of the future use of asbestos and the identification and proper management of asbestos currently in place are the most effective means to protect workers from asbestos exposure and to prevent future asbestos-related diseases and deaths”.

The matter with regard to complete decontamination of existing asbestos sites is pending before the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC). The Union Mines Ministry has consistently informed the Parliament that "In view of the hazardous effect of asbestos mining on health, the Government has decided not to grant any new lease for mining of asbestos and minerals found along with asbestos. It does not renew the existing mining leases of asbestos.

In view of the deleterious effect of asbestos mining on the health of the workers, the government have ordered the State governments in 1986 not to grant any new mining lease for asbestos (including chrysotile variety) in the country. In June 1993, government stopped the renewal of existing mining leases of asbestos in the country." The ministry has rightly recognised the poisonous nature of asbestos fibers. Is it reasonable for the Bihar government to ignore the "deleterious effect of asbestos."

BANI expects a pro-farmer, pro-people, pro-worker and pr-environment decision from the Bihar government. Public interest creates a compelling logic for Bihar government to denounce indefensible and misleading information being offered by Kolkotta based Balmukund asbestos company choosing not to learn from the experience of Singur and Nandigram.

As early as 1898, British government factory inspectors recognized adverse health effects associated with exposure to asbestos fibres. By the 1930s, the scientific evidence of the association between asbestos exposure and non-malignant respiratory disease was well established. With the publication of Irving Selikoff’s study of insulation workers in 1964, the evidence of carcinogenicity was incontrovertible. (Reference: Selikoff IJ, Churg J, Hammond EC. Asbestos exposure and neoplasia. JAMA. 1964;188:22–26) The scientific consensus today is that all types of asbestos fibres, including chrysotile, cause asbestosis, lung cancer, and other cancers most specifically mesothelioma.

At the International Conference this year entitled "Preventing Emerging Occupational and Environmental Risks in South Asia and Beyond" was organized by Centre for Occupational & Environmental Health (New Delhi), Collegium Ramazzini (Italy), and Drexel University, School of Public Health, Philadelphia, supported by Union Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of India, and WHO, SEARO held in Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, the experts noted that the grave health hazards of asbestos are entirely preventable if exposure to this killer fiber is avoided. The health risks of asbestos exposure are unacceptable. Indian health experts and officials admitted the almost complete absence of occupational and environmental health infrastructure in the country. There isn’t any cancer registry that records environmental and occupational cancers.

Renowned experts of environmental and occupational exposures who were in New Delhi earlier this for this conference repeatedly urged Government of India to harbour no illusions about the “controlled use” of asbestos because there is no realistic alternative to a ban. Moreover, even the best workplace controls cannot prevent occupational and environmental exposures to products in use or to waste. The trend of alarming rise in the consumption of asbestos in India in hospitals, schools, homes and commercial buildings now resemble those that existed in the industrialized countries before the dangers of asbestos were widely recognized. Besides Russia, the world's largest manufacturer which is the largest supplier of chrysotile asbestos to India, Canada is the second largest supplier to India although over the past two decades, Canada has spent millions stripping asbestos from the walls and ceilings of schools, the Parliament Buildings, and hospitals because of the national outcry against asbestos making the government to stamp out asbestos use at home. But it is promoting its use in India.

Till date, some 52 countries have banned asbestos. Asbestos is recognized as a carcinogen and is banned in all 27 European Union member countries besides Australia, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Chile, and Japan. Unmindful of this between 1999 and 2001, Canada’s government spent about $575,000 appealing France’s 1997 asbestos ban, only to have even the World Trade Organization (WTO) uphold the prohibition imposed on these killer fibers. Turkey has announced that it has banned production, use and supply of asbestos from 30th December, 2010. Turkey's Environment Management Directorate General released a statement said, "The ban on use of asbestos will both eliminate diseases stemming from the substance and end emission of asbestos to the environment," the statement said.

In such an international scenario, BANI hopes that Bihar government will protect the state’s villagers from the poisonous factory and not the poisonous factory.

For Details: Gopal Krishna, Convener, Ban Asbestos Network of India (BANI), Asbestos Mukti Andolan, Mb: 07739308480, 09818089660, Web:

Thursday, December 30, 2010

Environmentalists petition Nitish to stop asbestos factory

Environmentalists petition Nitish to stop asbestos factory

Shoumojit Banerjee

Muzaffarpur (Bihar): An uneasy calm has descended over the village of Bishnupur-Chainpur, currently a hotbed of passionate agitation against a proposed Rs.31-crore asbestos factory to be set up by the Kolkata-based Balmukund Cement and Roofing Ltd (BCRL).

As the impasse between the village residents and the company management continues, environmentalists and asbestos experts over the world are petitioning Chief Minister Nitish Kumar to firmly consign the “killer dust” jinn back into the bottle.

On Wednesday, noted Environmental Consultant and asbestos hazard expert Dr. Barry Castleman addressed letters to Mr. Kumar and Union Minister of State for Environment and Forests Jairam Ramesh (copies of which are with The Hindu) drawing their attention to the community resistance in Muzaffarpur over the proposed plant and the repressive measures initiated by the district authorities.

As reported on Tuesday, villagers have been battling the district administration and the BCRL management since July over alleged misinformation on the perceived hazardous fallouts of the proposed Chrysotile asbestos plant in Chainpur.

In his letter to Mr. Kumar, Dr. Castleman, whose testimony contributed significantly to the passage of the Ban Asbestos in America Act of 2007, notes that “there is no such thing as an asbestos plant that does not endanger the surrounding community with pollution from its manufacturing process, its shipments of raw material and products, waste dumps, and the contamination of workers' clothes worn home after work.” The only question in this case was the extent of the peril.

Stating that “profitability” appeared to be the BCRL's raison d'etre in the asbestos business, he warned of the extant dangers in setting up the factory amidst a residential area populated with schools and healthcare centres.

“None of the owners of the planned factory have indicated that they would be willing to move their families into town and buy a home close and downwind from the planned factory,” he mentioned in his letter to Mr. Kumar.

Author of one of the most comprehensive studies on the litigation titled “Asbestos: Medical and Legal Aspects,” Dr. Castleman has questioned the company's assertion that the proposed asbestos-cement plant in Bihar would be operating with “worker exposures at no more than 0.5 asbestos fibers/cc of air.” That was exactly what the “US asbestos industry claimed to be able to do with technology applied after 15 years of regulation, in the mid-1980s, before they all went out of business.”

Meanwhile, the villagers of Bishnupur-Chainpur have given a 24-page memorandum to the Muzaffarpur district administration listing the causes for their opposition to the proposed plant, highlighting glaring contraventions in the BCRL's EIA report and registering their protest against the June 28 public hearing, which they allege was a sham.

“No violations”

However, when contacted, BCRL director N.K. Kanodia refuted all allegations, stating that there were no violations in the EIA report and that all the Terms of Reference (TORs) as laid down by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) were adhered to. Speaking to The Hindu, he said that the 17.8-acre site acquired for the proposed plant was “entirely barren” and “there were no schools and health centres in the vicinity of the upcoming factory.”

The MoEF had given Environmental Clearance to the BCRL in October this year.

On the allegations that the company management let loose armed men to break a demonstration, which resulted in six villagers suffering severe injuries in a firing, Mr. Kanodia said the firing was an act of self-defence on the part of the management. The instigators were criminals, against whom FIRs had been lodged by the district administration.

“This campaign is false propaganda to blackmail the company management. Banners like Socialist Unity Centre of India (SUCI) are behind this act of disruption. We have met Deputy Chief Minister Sushil Kumar Modi and things are being sorted out,” he said.

Though there is a temporary truce between the villagers and the district administration after the December 13 firing incident, residents are seething over the arrest of two of the leaders of the agitation.

Dec 30, 2010

Tuesday, December 28, 2010

Help Needed to Stop Killer Asbestos Plants


Shri Sushil Kumar Modi
Deputy Chief Minister
Government of Bihar

Subject-Help Needed to Stop Killer Asbestos Plants

Dear Sir,

Pursuant to my earlier letter dated December 26, 2010, I am attaching a letter of Dr Barry Castleman who has authored the most authoritative book asbestos titled "Asbestos: Medical & Legal Aspects which is currently in its Fifth Edition. Dr Castleman as sent a similar letter to Mr Jairam Ramesh, Union Minister of Environment & Forests. This letter is attached.

Dr Castleman has given testimony before the US Senate Committee On Environment And Public Works public health issues related to asbestos exposure in America. The testimony is attached.

His testimony contributed to to the passage of the "Ban Asbestos in America Act of 2007" on October 4, 2007 by the United States Senate. It was a unanimous voice vote and the bill now goes to the House of Representatives. This bill stops distribution of asbestos-containing materials including brake pads and roofing items that contain asbestos. The federal government would also expand research into diseases caused by asbestos exposure, particularly mesothelioma, asbestosis, and pleural injuries.

Dr Castleman has helped prepare the World Bank's Asbestos Guidance Note May 2009 as well. The Asbestos Guidance Note is also attached.

I also wish to draw your attention towards the recent disbursal of a meager amount of Rs 3 crore as compensation to 95 former asbestos workers – and in two cases their spouses –by a UK company which manufactured asbestos products at its Ghatkopar plant, Mumbai on 23rd December, 2010. This compensation was given because the nature of their work was responsible for them suffering from asbestosis, a dangerous lung infection that could lead to cancer. These workers were formerly employed with Hindustan Composites Ltd in which UK-based M/s Turner & Newall were one of the major share-holders. A case is still pending in the labour court at Mumbai. This British multinational company wound up its operations and has set up a trust fund to settle claims for asbestos related diseases from all over the world.

It is noteworthy that Dr Castleman has been writing against Maharashtra and Gujarat asbestos plants at least since 1981. He had reviewed the "extraordinary portrait of evil in the business world documented in "Magic mineral to killer dust: Turner & Newall and the asbestos hazard" giving an account of the UK asbestos scandal in The Lancet, the world's leading general medical journal and specialty journals in Oncology, Neurology and Infectious Diseases in its September 2, 2000 issue. In his article titled " Export of Hazards:The Double Standard in Industrial Hazards" published in the September 1984 issue of Multinational Monitor was an eye opener. The

Dr Castleman is the leading asbestos experts for both plaintiff and defense attorneys, occupational and environmental health professionals, as well as others in the field of toxic substances control, his book "Asbestos: Medical and Legal Aspects" has become the definitive resource on the medical and legal aspects of asbestos.

Meanwhile, villagers of Chainpur-Bishunpur, Marwan, Muzaffarpur have given a 24 page written submission to Mr Kundan Kumar, Sub Divisional Officer (SDO), Muzaffarpur (West) with a copy to Mr Anand Kishore, District Magistrate, Muzaffarpur on 28/12/2010 providing details of their struggle since July 2010 and giving seven reasons for their opposition to the proposed asbestos plant. This rigorous submission is in Hindi.

The reasons mentioned in the submission are as follows:

1. Balmukund Cement and Roofing Ltd, Bihar started the construction without taking villagers into confidence about the hazards from asbestos. The Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) report was not made available in Hindi. This EIA report is factually incorrect. The Public Hearing which was conducted was fake. It is now learnt that almost all the provisions of the EIA Notification, 2006 have been violated.
2. The problem of asbestos related diseases like asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer is a cause of serious concern. All forms of Asbestos including the “chrysotile” (White) Asbestos to be used in the factory is carcinogenic in nature.
3. The White Asbestos (Ban on Use and Import) Bill, 2009 is pending in the Rajya Sabha
4. Orders of National Human Rights Commission, Kerela Human Rights Commission and the application to the Bihar State Human Rights Commission
5. Letter dated 24 December from Dr Sanjay Chaturvedi, Head, Dept of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Delhi, Delhi on the subject of asbestos hazards
6. International experience on asbestos issue and World Health Organization (WHO), the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC), representing 176 million workers in 151 countries have all called for an end to the use of any form of asbestos, including chrysotile asbestos, which represents 100% of the global asbestos trade.
7. National Experience with Asbestos Industry

Notably, it was the students of these villages who taught the villagers from their text book of Biology and Chemistry of Class Xth and XIIth, which revealed that asbestos causes incurable diseases like asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma. The Class Xth textbook is titled High School Jiv Vigyan published by Bharti Bhavan Publishers & Distributers, Patna in 1994. It is authored by Prof Vivekanand Banerjee, former Head, Department of Biology, Science College, Patna University and Dr Gopal Krishna Verma, former Head, Department of Zoology, CMP College, Allahabad University. At page no. 166 of the textbook refers to diseases caused by asbestos. The Class XIIth textbook is titled Inter Rasayan published by Bharti Bhavan Publishers & Distributers, Patna in 1976. It is authored by Dr Awadesh Kumar Singh and Dr Anil Kumar Sinha. At page no. 2-345 the textbook categorically says, “Asbestos is a particulate pollutant of the atmosphere. In the process of preparation of asbestos sheet, the asbestos particles become airborne. If one breathes such air for a long period it causes asbestosis disease”.

It is germane to note that as early as May & July 2010 Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), New Delhi had informed Mr A M Mauskar, Additional Secretary, Union Ministry of Environment & Forests had pointed out manifest violation of Environment Impact Assessment Notification, 2006 in the matter of the proposed asbestos plant by the Balmukund company.

In view of Dr Castleman's letter, my previous letter, villagers rational opposition, CSE's letter and in the interest of the public health of the present and future generation of Bihar, I urge you to stop the construction of the proposed asbestos cement roofing sheet factory in Chainpur, Muzaffarpur and proposed similar plants in Bihiya, Bhojpur, in Panapur, Vaishali and elsewhere in the state.

Thanks & Regards
Gopal Krishna
Ban Asbestos Network of India (BANI)
Asbestos Mukti Andolan
New Delhi
Mb: 09818089660, 07739308480

Are Indian lives so cheap?

BANI's Initial Reaction: Are Indian lives so cheap? Is it worth only Rs 1 lakh each? Ban Asbestos Network of India (BANI) which is working as a National Alliance for Asbestos Free India and Asbestos Mukti Andolan feels that such cheap assessment of human life is a legacy of British colonialism. British asbestos company, Turner and Newell knowingly exposed the workers to incurable health crisis that was preventable. 

By 1920, Turner & Newall Company knew very much aware that the loss of about one third of its workforce was due to the inhalation of certain dust classified as asbestos, yet it failed to disclose this to its workforce.This demonstrated that the Company placed profits above humanity. it was very dangerous and hazardous to human body. Irrespective of these dangers it maintained the policy of “Secrecy” and ignored all other important issues relating to humanity, such as “Duties of Care, Distributive Justice, Informed Consent and Corporate responsibility.” By 1980, the company's profit was more than £300 million, and the profit making continued until 1980. Up to 16% profit was returned to its shareholders in some years, yet they continued to deny their employees their right to “Health and Safety” environment. 

BANI feels that in such a situation, nothing short of exemplary punishment under criminal law and imposition of huge cost would be and should be deemed adequate. A more considered reaction would be shared after careful perusal of the compensation papers. 

Asbestosis victims win 3 cr compensation from UK Trust

Ex-staffers of Hindustan Composites who were fighting for claims since 2004 will receive over Rs 1 lakh each
Lata Mishra
Posted On Friday, December 24, 2010 at 02:50:25 AM
In a payout that could set a precedent, a defunct UK company that made asbestos sheets at its Ghatkopar plant has compensated 95 former workers – and in two cases their spouses – accepting their claims that the nature of their work was responsible for them suffering from asbestosis, a dangerous lung infection that could lead to cancer (see box).

Victims and their relations gather on Thursday at Marathi Patrakar Sangh to receive compensation
Ashish Raje
These 97 people have raised hopes of millions of Indian workers who are fighting for health-related compensation from foreign companies. The workers, formerly employed with Hindustan Composites Ltd, have won compensation of over Rs 3 crore, and each of them will receive between Rs 1.5 lakh and Rs 8 lakh, depending on the severity of the disease.

Till 1993, UK-based M/s Turner & Newall were one of the major share-holders in Hindustan Composites Ltd, which made brake liners and clutch facings. In 2004, Krantikari Kamgar Union along with Occupational Health and Safety Centre conducted tests on around 180 workers of the company, and around 42 were found to be suffering from asbestosis. A case was filed by the union, which is still pending in the labour court at Mumbai.

In the meantime, M/s Turner & Newall wound up operations and a trust fund was set up to settle claims for asbestosis from all over the world. After months of negotiations, the trust fund agreed to accept medical evidence of the Occupational Health and Safety Centre, and in November this year, 97 people received the first tranche of compensation. The union had forwarded 115 claims.

The two women who won the claim are wives of the company workers. They contracted asbestosis from the clothes of their spouses. One of the women, Indira Pavekar, said, “I received compensation of Rs 7 lakh. My husband had 60 per cent asbestosis. Obviously I am happy to get back something after my husband gave up his health for the sake of the company. This decision sends a message that no company can take their workers’ health for granted.”

Another claim winner, 68-year-old Ganpat Palshetkar, said he received around Rs 8 lakh. “The warehouse was my world. It took away my health, gave me this disease. I hope to put on track whatever remains of my life with this money.”

Krantikari Kamgar Union president Sanjay Singhvi said the aim of the entire campaign was to make sure “foreign companies stop treating In-dian workers like objects for experiment.” He said, “This is a huge victory and the compensation is welcome, but it is not the solution. How can anything substitute health? It’s time all companies create a healthy working environment.”

What is Asbestosis

Asbestosis is a chronic inflammatory and fibrotic medical condition affecting the lungs. It is caused by inhalation and retention of asbestos fibres and usually occurs after high intensity and/or long-term exposure to asbestos (particularly in those individuals working on production or end-use of products containing asbestos) and is therefore regarded as an occupational lung disease.

People with extensive occupational exposure to mining, manufacturing, handling or removal of asbestos are at risk of developing asbestosis. Sufferers may experience severe shortness of breath and are at risk for lung cancer.

Asbestos Plant in Jasidih, Deoghar, Jharkhand

Expansion of Asbestos Cement Sheets & Accessories Unit (72,000 TPA to 1,72,000 TPA) at Jasidih Industrial Estate, Jasidih, District Deoghar, Jharkhand by M/s Hyderabad Industries Ltd. (TORs)

The project authorities and their consultant gave a detailed presentation on the salient features of the project and proposed environmental protection measures to be undertaken alongwith the draft Term of References for the preparation of EIA/EMP. All the Asbestos Cement Sheet Plants are listed at S.N. 3(c) under Category ?A? and appraised at the Central level.

M/s Hyderabad Industries Ltd. have proposed for the expansion of Asbestos Cement Sheets & Accessories Unit (72,000 TPA to 1,72,000 TPA)at Jasidih Industrial Estate, Jasidih, District Deoghar, Jharkhand. Project area is 70 acres. No additional land will be required for the expansion project. Total cost of the project is Rs. 35.00 Crores. Rs. 45.00 Lakhs and Rs. 5.00 Lakhs are earmarked towards capital cost and recurring cost for pollution control measures.

Cement, fly ash gypsum, pulp and fibre will be used as raw materials. Fibre will be imported from Canada, Brazil, Russia etc. Asbestos fibres will be imported in fully impermeable bags in pelletized form and will be opened in automatic bag opening device. The empty bags will be shredded in shredder unit. The fibre in the wet form will be taken to Edge Runner Mill. Bag filter type dust collector will be provided. Cement and fly ash is added to make slurry which is then taken to sheet forming machine. Wet sheet is taken to felt and then to drum. After cutting to required length, the sheet is transferred to profiling machine (corrugators). Formed sheets are stacked in between steel moulds (temporary) and air cured in closed chamber. Scrubbers will be provided after bag filters. PAs informed that fully automatic with minimum human intervention.

Total ground water requirement for the expansion from bore wells will be 100 m3/day. This will be in addition to 70 m3/day required for the existing plant. After neutralization cooling tower blow down in a Central Monitoring Basin. The treated effluent will be recycled /reused in plant, dust suppression and green belt development. Service water will be passed through oil separator to remove oil content in the effluent. Domestic effluent will be treated in septic tank followed by soak pit. No effluent will be discharged outside the premises and ?Zero? discharge will be adopted. Rain water harvesting structure will be constructed.

All the solid wastes viz. Asbestos containing residues and off cuts of Asbestos cement sheets will be collected and recycled in the ball mill and pulverizor. 27% fly ash from nearby thermal power plant will be used in the Asbestos cement sheet plant. Waste oil and used batteries will be sold to authorized recyclers/re-processors.

Existing green belt is 20 acres and green belt will be developed in another 10 acres. Power (700 KVA) is sourced from Jharkhand SEB. DG set (500 KVA) exist & 1010 KVA will be installed during expansion. Employment to 100 persons will be provided.

After deliberations and considering the facts mentioned above, the Expert Appraisal Committee (Industry) recommended the proposal for the preparation of EIA/EMP as per the following TORs:

1 Present land use of study area for 10 Km radius should be included. Detailed topographical map indicating drainage pattern and other features of the area should also be included.

2 Proposal should be submitted to the Ministry for environment clearance only after acquiring total land. Necessary documents indicating acquisition of land viz. lease deed, allotment letter should be included.

3 High-resolution satellite image data having 1m-5m spatial resolution like quickbird, Ikonos, IRS P-6 pan sharpened etc. for the 10 km radius area from proposed site should be incorporated. The same should be used for land used /land-cover mapping of the area.

4 Project site layout plan, raw materials, fly ash and other storage plans, bore well or water storage, aquifers (within 1 Km.) dumping, waste disposal, green areas, water bodies, rivers/drainage passing through the project site should be included.

5 Cumulative data base of last 2-3 yrs. for emissions e.g. aerosols size, optical depth, CO, CO2, surface and air temperature, NO, CH4, anions / cations / trace metals as given below in surface/subsurface water with present GW level and its fluctuation for last 5-10 yrs from CGWB.

6 For the project lying within 10 km radius of any major river, Flood Hazard Zonation Mapping is required at 1:5000 to 1;10,000 scale indicating the peak and lean river discharge as well as flood occurrence frequency.

7 Geo-technical data by a bore hole of upto 40 mts. in every One sq. km area such as ground water level, SPTN values, soil fineness, geology, shear wave velocity etc. for liquefaction studies. This will help making a future Seismic Hazard and Earthquake Risk Management area.

8 Site-specific micro-meteorological data including inversion height and mixing height should be included

9 Modern up-to-date Asbestos plant with automatic bag opening devices should be installed.

10 The safety measures adopted during import and transport of Asbestos from Canada, Brazil, Russia etc. should be included.

11 Details of the other industries located in 10 km radius should be included

12 Data on existing ambient air, stack emission, fugitive emissions data; water requirement and water balance cycle; generation, re-utilization and disposal of solid/ hazardous waste for the existing plant and predicted increase in pollution load (GLCs) due to proposed expansion should be incorporated.

13 Point-wise compliance to the specific and general conditions stipulated in the environmental clearance for the existing plant.

14 One season base line data on air, water, soil & noise etc. should be included

15 A chapter on chemistry of asbestos, handling of asbestos material, precautions proposed for the direct contact, arrangements made for storage and monitoring of asbestos fibres etc. other details as per given below:

i. Size of silica sand, transportation, storage, spillway of melt and temperature management for float glass and mirror Industry along with silicosis management and toxicity studies and management for Ag etc.

ii. Source and location of Asbestos (GPS) even if imported, size in F/ml, levels in environment, Chemical composition of raw material as especially amount of Tremolite, Crocidolite, Amosite and other amphiboles, Hexavalent chromium in raw material especially in serpentine, talc and chrysotile, Electron microscopy, XRD and Raman Spectra studies.

iii. Health Management Plan for Mesothalmia, Lung cancer and Asbestosis related problems in asbestos industries.

16 Petrological and Chemical analysis and other chemical properties of raw materials used (with GPS location of source of raw material) i.e. ores, minerals, rock, soil, coal, iron, dolomite quartz etc. using high definition and precision instruments mentioning their detection range and methodology such Digital Analyzers, AAS with Graphite furnace, ICPMS, MICRO-WDXRF, EPMA, XRD, Nano studies or at least as per I30-10500 and WHO norms. These analysis should include trace element and metal studies like Cr (vi) Ni, Fe, As, Pb, Zn, Hg, Se, S etc. Presence of radioactive elements (U, Th etc.),

17 Petrography, grain size analysis and Major element analysis of raw material and soil from project site and raw material should be done on the same parameters along with analysis for SiO2, Al2O3, MgO, MnO, K2O, CaO, FeO, Fe2O3, P2O5, H2O, CO2.

18 If the rocks, ores, raw material has trace elements their petrography, ore microscopy, XRD, elemental mapping EPMA, XRF is required to quantify the amount present in it and hence future risk involved while using it and management plan.

19 Mode of transport of raw materials from sources are to be shown. All the trucks for raw material and finished product transportation must be ?Environmentally Compliant?

20 Studies are also required for fly ash, muck disposal, slurry, sludge material and solid waste generated if the raw materials used has trace elements and a management plan.

21 Air quality modelling for the Asbestos handling system. Ambient air quality monitoring modelling alongwith cumulative impact. Following are to be included as an annexure for the day (24 hrs) considered for maximum GLC:

I. Emissions (g/second) with and without the air pollution control measures

II. Meteorological inputs (wind speed, m/s), wind direction, ambient air temperature, cloud cover, relative humidity & mixing height) on hourly basis

III. Model input options for terrain, plume rise, deposition etc.

IV. Print-out of model input and output on hourly and daily average basis

V. A graph of daily averaged concentration (MGLC scenario) with downwind distance at every 500 m interval covering the exact location of GLC.

VI. Details of air pollution control methods used with percentage efficiency that are used for emission rate estimation with respect to each pollutant

VII. Applicable air quality standards as per LULC covered in the study area and % contribution of the proposed plant to the applicable Air quality standard. In case of expansion project, the contribution should be inclusive of both existing and expanded capacity.

VIII. No. I-VII are to be repeated for fugitive emissions and any other source type relevant and used for industry

IX. Graphs of monthly average daily concentration with down-wind distance

X. Specify when and where the ambient air quality standards are exceeded either due to the proposed plant alone or when the plant contribution is added to the background air quality.

XI. Fugitive dust protection or dust reduction technology for workers within 30 m of the plant active areas.

22 Sources of secondary emissions, its control and monitoring as per the CPCB guidelines and latest notification vide G.S.R. 414(E) dated 30thMay, 2008 should be included.

23 Chemical characterization of RSPM and incorporation of RSPM data. Location of one AAQMS in downwind direction.

24 Action plan to follow National Ambient Air Quality Emission Standards issued by the Ministry vide G.S.R. No. 826(E) dated 16th November, 2009 should be included.

25 Action plan for rainwater harvesting measures at plant site should be submitted to harvest rainwater from the roof tops and storm water drains to recharge the ground water and also to use for the various activities at the project site to conserve fresh water and reduce the water requirement from other sources. Rain water harvesting and groundwater recharge structures may also be constructed outside the plant premises in consultation with local Gram Panchayat and Village Heads to augment the ground water level. Incorporation of water harvesting plan for the project is necessary, if source of water is bore well.

26 Actual source and permission for the drawl of ?? m3/day water from bore well from the SGWB/CGWA or concerned authority and water balance data including quantity of effluent generated, recycled and reused and discharged is to be provided. Methods adopted/to be adopted for the water conservation should be included

27 Ground water monitoring minimum at 8 locations should be included.

28 Surface as well as roof top rain water harvesting and ground water recharge should be included.

29 Scheme for proper storage of asbestos fibres and disposal of solid/hazardous waste should be included.

30 Presence of an aquifer/aquifers within 1 km of the project boundaries should be included. Management plan for recharging the aquifer should be given so as to limit the water extraction within permissible limit of CWC or CGWB should be included.

31 Source of surface/ground water level, site (GPS), cation, anion (Ion Chromatograph), metal trace element (as above) chemical analysis for water to be used. If surface water is used from river, rainfall, discharge rate, quantity, drainage and distance from project site should also be included.

32 Ground water analysis with bore well data, litho-logs, drawdown and recovery tests to quantify the area and volume of aquifer and its management should be included.

33 Ground water modeling showing the pathways of the pollutants should be included

34 Column leachate study for all types of stockpiles or waste disposal sites, at 20oC-50oC should be conducted and included.

35 All samplings for water have to be done during the peak summer time (Sampling number, dates and standard deviation should be included.

36 Incorporation of water harvesting plan for the project is necessary, if source of water is bore well should be ensured.

37 Provision of traps and treatment plants are to be made, if water is getting mixed with oil, grease and cleaning agents should be included.

38 If the water is mixed with solid particulates, proposal for sediment pond before further transport should be included. The sediment pond capacity should be 100 times the transport capacity.

39 Wastewater characteristics (heavy metals, anions and cations, trace metals, PAH) from asbestos bearing effluent should be included.

40 The pathways for pollution via seepages, evaporation, residual remains are to be studied for surface water (drainage, rivers, ponds, lakes), sub-surface and ground water with a monitoring and management plans should be included.

41 All stock piles should be on top of a stable liner to avoid leaching of materials to ground water.

42 The green belt should be around the project boundary in 33 % area and a scheme for greening of the traveling roads should also be incorporated. All rooftops/terraces should have some green cover.

43 Disaster Management Plan including risk assessment and damage control needs to be addressed and included.

44 Arrangements for the proper monitoring of the occupational health of the workers should be included. Occupational hazards specific pre-placement and periodical monitoring and periodical monitoring should be carried out. The detailed plan to carry out above mentioned activity should be mentioned. The measures to protect the workers from accidents and other safety issues. Detailed plan for the same. Man machine relationship. How the issue of man-machine relationship to protect the workers from musculo-skeletal disorder such as backache, arthritis, body ache etc.

45 Detailed action plan for compliance of the directions of the Hon?ble Supreme Court of India regarding occupational health and safety measures in asbestos industries should be included.

46 Detailed description of the flora and fauna (terrestrial and aquatic) should be given with special reference to rare, endemic and endangered species.

47 Compliance to the recommendations mentioned in the CREP guidelines should be included.

48 An action plan on entire operation should be automatic and closed system for all operations for fibre handling and processing should be included.

49 Details of arrangement for measurement and monitoring of asbestos fibre (Phase contrast microscope) should be included.

50 Detailed Environment management Plan (EMP) with specific reference to details of air pollution control system water & wastewater management, monitoring frequency, responsibility and time bound implementation plan for mitigation measure should be provided.

51 EMP should include the concept of waste-minimization, recycle/reuse/recovery techniques, Energy conservation, and natural resource conservation.

52 EMP should include a clear map for plantation/green belt.

53 Commitment that laboratory for monitoring asbestos fibres will be established at the site.

54 At least 5 % of the total cost of the project should be earmarked towards the corporate social responsibility and item-wise details alongwith time bound action plan should be included. Socio-economic development activities need to be elaborated upon.

55 Public hearing issues raised and commitments made by the project proponent on the same should be included separately in EIA/EMP Report in the form of tabular chart with financial budget for complying with the commitments made.

56 Any litigation pending against the project and/or any direction/order passed by any Court of Law against the project, if so, details thereof should also be included.

The Expert Committee (Industry) decided that PAs may be communicated the above `TORs` for the preparation of EIA/EMP including other information as per the generic structure given in Appendix-III of EIA Notification, 2006. As soon as the draft EIA/EMP report is prepared, the same may be submitted by the PAs to the Jharkhand Pollution Control Board (JPCB) for conducting public hearing/public consultation as per EIA Notification, 2006. On finalization of EIA/EMP prepared as per TORs and addressing and incorporating all concerns raised during public hearing / public consultation, the same should be submitted to the MoEF for prior environmental clearance.

It is noted that no public hearing/consultation will be required as per Section (iii), Stage (3), Para (i)(b) of EIA Notification 2006, only if a copy of the Gazaette Notification issued by the Govt. of Jharkhand indicating location of the project in notified Jasidih industrial estate is submitted. In that case, final EIA/EMP will be submitted to MoEF for prior environmental clearance.

Hindustan Composites Limited, Ghatkopar, Mumbai and

Pralhad Malwadkar, OHSC,Mumbai:

Ravi narrated his work experience (he was employee of HCL since 1974 till the factory closed down in

2004) in the factory, which was set up by UK based asbestos major Turner and Newell, which later sold off

its shares to its Indian subsidiary. Ravi narrated how he and his co‐workers were unaware of hazards of

asbestos and handled asbestos fibres without any precaution, mostly imported from Canada, South

Africa, Zimbabwe, and Brazil to manufacture asbestos brake liners, friction material, and textiles. Most of

the warning or hazard information that was printed on the imported asbestos bags was in English and no

one trained the workers for safety or any precaution to be taken while opening the bags. The workers

came to know of asbestos hazards and its impact on their health when Krantikari Kamgar Union alongwith

OHSC organised health camp infront of the factory gate.

In the ’60s and ’70s, masks were only worn when the factory’s British owners came to visit. In the ’80s and ’90s, masks were worn sporadically. A machine to expel the asbestos dust was used, but run at a low setting to save money. He says in 2002, safety measures were stepped up, and masks were given out every day.

The company sent them for medical checkups every year, but they were never told if there was a health problem

In 2004, OHSC with KKU organised a medical camp and diagnosed 41 confirmed cases

of asbestosis. Out of these cases, 36 workers went to labour commissioner to file for compensation for

health damages. In 2008, a survey was started with 648 workers in which earlier workers who had been

diagnosed in 2004 were also included for reassessment. Total 864 workers are now being studied. With a

doctor and a researcher the survey was started. Between April‐June 2008, 260 workers were surveyed

and PFT tests conducted, 170 workers referred for x‐rays. 45 workers were confirmed for asbestosis. Later

530 workers were surveyed. 92 confirmed cases of absestosis were diagnosed. So far 133 cases have been

found to be confirmed cases of asbestosis have been found in this factory, with 2 cases of lung cancer and

one case of larynx cancer. Besides, claims are being filed in the T&N Trust in the UK for compensation of

affected workers.

The company was incorporated on 1st July 1964.The certificate of   commencement of business was obtained on 19th August 1964. It was  jointly promoted by TURNER & NEWALL LTD.,  MANCHESTER, a wholly owned  subsidiary of TURNER & NEWALL LTD, with 74% equity participation.  The  company acquired the undertaking of Asbestos, Magnesia & Friction  Material Ltd., comprising its entire manufacturing businesses well as  the estate, factory and office, with approximately 18 acres of land at  Agra road in GHATKOPAR BOMBAY.  In November the company entered into  technical assistance agreements with the operating subsidiaries of  TURNER & NEWALL LTD., under which it was entitled to get technical  assistance (i) from FERRODO LTD., for the manufacture of FERRODO  friction materials for a consideration of pound sterling 5000 per  annum payable for a period of 5 years, (ii) from J.W. ROBERTS LTD.,  for the manufacture of FEROBESTOS asbestos flooring sheets for a  consideration of pound sterling 1000 per annum payable for a period  if 5 years.             1982: A strike by the employees had an impact on the sales for the  year. During the year the company received Government approval  for  additional capacities of 1325 tonnes of brake linings and 10 lakh  nos. of clutch facings. A collaboration agreement with VALCO, FRANCE  for the manufacture of diaphragm  clutches was also signed.    1983: There was a recession in demand in most of the company's  product lines. During October the company issued 206093 - 12.5%  convertible debentures of Rs 180 each of which 148000 debentures were  offered to the public. Allotment was made on 14th December. Rs.80 out  of the face value of each debenture was convertible into 5 equity  shares of Rs.10 each at a premium of Rs.6 per share after 6 months  but before 12 months from the date of allotment without any further  act or application by the debenture holders (conversion rights  already exercised). The balance of  Rs.100 per debenture is redeemable at par in three annual instalments  of Rs.35 Rs.35 and Rs.30 at the end 7th, 8th and 9th year respectively  from the date of allotment of the debentures.     The company has acquired 44,886 sq.mts. of land at Paithan in  Aurangabad district of Maharastra, during the period for setting up  one or more remaining plants of the company for  expansion/diversification.    1984: The working was adversely affected due sluggish market  conditions, keen competition, escalation in the cost of inputs,  higher interest burden and steep increase in the Dollar Rupee parity.   During the year application was filed for Industrial licence for the  manufacture of speciality industrial gaskets in technical  collaboration with FLEXITALLIC LTD., U.K.                      1985: The working conditions were adversely affected by depressed  market, work stoppages during July, September and October, additional  bonus payment and implementation of an early voluntary retirement  scheme.            1986: Manufacture of diaphragm clutches at Jalna commenced.            1987: Work force at Ghatkopar plant was trimmed to make the  operations economically viable            1988-89: Low capacity utilisation at Jalna, the delayed commissioning  of the Bandra unit and the loss of production at Ghatkopar unit during  February/March 1989 caused by inter-union rivalry, adversely affected  the internal accruals of the company.            1989-90: New markets were identified for its products and new items  were added to its range of exports. Depreciation of the Rupee against  the US and Canadian dollar imposed burden on the cost of raw asbestos,  a principal raw material. The Jalna plant was proposed to be disposed.  Necessary approvals were awaited.            1990-91: Operations were discontinued at Ghatkopar plant from 18th  October, 1990 to 15th May, 1991 and at Bandra from 9th January, 1991  to 14th April, 1991. The proposal to dispose the Jalna plant was  dropped and a strategy to run the unit without loss was evolved.    1996-97: There was a strike at Paithan factory for 3 months. But in  spite of it, the company managed to increase the turnover and profit  marginally to Rs 62.81 crores and Rs 2.26 crores from Rs 60.87 crores  & Rs 1.91 crores respectively.    2007    -Hindustan Composites Ltd has informed  that Mr.V.R. Tripathi, Vice  President will be treated as the Compliance Officer of the Company  w.e.f. 10th February 2007.    2008    -Hindustan Composites Ltd has repoointed Mr. P K Choudhary as  Managing Director of the Company for a period of 3 years w.e.f. March  18, 2008, subject to the approval of members of the Company in their  general meeting.    - Hindustan Composites Ltd has has appointed Lt. Gen. (Retd.) K.S.  Brar as an Independent Additional Director of the Company w.e.f. 30th  September 2008.

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